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Full List of References for the 3 Part Fat Series

June 16, 2015

Part 1: What are Fats? A Scientific Approach to Dispelling the Confusion Around Fat

Part 2: The Truth about Fat

Part 3: Fat as Fuel in Sports Performance


Accurso, A., Bernstein, R. K., Dahlqvist, A., Draznin, B., Feinman, R. D., Fine, E. J., … & Manninen, A. H. (2008). Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutrition & metabolism5(1), 1.

Ahola-Erkkilä, S., Carroll, C., Peltola-Mjösund, K., Tulkki, V., Mattila, I., Seppänen-Laakso, T., … & Suomalainen, A. (2010). Ketogenic diet slows down mitochondrial myopathy progression in mice. Human molecular genetics, ddq076.

Al-Khalifa, A., Mathew, T. C., Al-Zaid, N. S., Mathew, E., & Dashti, H. (2011). Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats. Experimental and toxicologic pathology63(7), 663-669.

Al-Sarraj, T., Saadi, H., Calle, M. C., Volek, J. S., & Fernandez, M. L. (2009). Carbohydrate restriction, as a first-line dietary intervention, effectively reduces biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in Emirati adults. The Journal of nutrition139(9), 1667-1676.

Ari, C., Poff, A. M., Held, H. E., Landon, C. S., Goldhagen, C. R., Mavromates, N., & D’Agostino, D. P. (2014). Metabolic therapy with Deanna protocol supplementation delays disease progression and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model. PloS one9(7), e103526.

Ballard, K. D., Quann, E. E., Kupchak, B. R., Volk, B. M., Kawiecki, D. M., Fernandez, M. L., … & Volek, J. S. (2013). Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins. Nutrition research33(11), 905-912.

Barañano, K. W., & Hartman, A. L. (2008). The ketogenic diet: uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses. Current treatment options in neurology10(6), 410-419.

Brownlow, M. L., Benner, L., D’Agostino, D., Gordon, M. N., & Morgan, D. (2013). Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s pathology.

PLoS One8(9), e75713.

Bueno, N. B., de Melo, I. S. V., de Oliveira, S. L., & da Rocha Ataide, T. (2013). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition110(07), 1178-1187.

Cervenka, M. C., Henry, B., Nathan, J., Wood, S., & Volek, J. S. (2013). Worldwide dietary therapies for adults with epilepsy and other disorders. Journal of child neurology28(8), 1034-1040.

Champ, C. E., Palmer, J. D., Volek, J. S., Werner-Wasik, M., Andrews, D. W., Evans, J. J., … & Shi, W. (2014). Targeting metabolism with a ketogenic diet during the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neuro-oncology117(1), 125-131.

D’Agostino, D., Pilla, R., Held, H., Landon, C., Ari, C., Arnold, P., & Dean, J. B. (2012). Development, testing and therapeutic applications of ketone esters (KE) for CNS oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT); ie, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2)-induced seizures. The FASEB Journal26(1 Supplement), 711-10.

D’Agostino, D. P., Pilla, R., Held, H. E., Landon, C. S., Puchowicz, M., Brunengraber, H., … & Dean, J. B. (2013). Therapeutic ketosis with ketone ester delays central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures in rats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology304(10), R829-R836.

De Oliveira, S. L., Diniz, D. B., & Amaya-Farfan, J. (2003). Carbohydrate–energy restriction may protect the rat brain against oxidative damage and improve physical performance. British journal of nutrition89(01), 89-96.

Deng-Bryant, Y., Prins, M. L., Hovda, D. A., & Harris, N. G. (2011). Ketogenic diet prevents alterations in brain metabolism in young but not adult rats after traumatic brain injury. Journal of neurotrauma28(9), 1813-1825.

DiNicolantonio, J. J. (2014). The cardiometabolic consequences of replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates or Ω-6 polyunsaturated fats: Do the dietary guidelines have it wrong?. Open heart1(1), e000032.

Feinman, R. D., Pogozelski, W. K., Astrup, A., Bernstein, R. K., Fine, E. J., Westman, E. C., … & Nielsen, J. V. (2015). Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition31(1), 1-13.

Feinman, R. D., & Volek, J. S. (2006). Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss. Nutrition & metabolism3(1), 1.

Forsythe, C. E., Phinney, S. D., Feinman, R. D., Volk, B. M., Freidenreich, D., Quann, E., … & Bibus, D. M. (2010). Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids45(10), 947-962.

Foster, G. D., Wyatt, H. R., Hill, J. O., McGuckin, B. G., Brill, C., Mohammed, B. S., … & Klein, S. (2003). A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. New England Journal of Medicine348(21), 2082-2090.

Fraser, D. A., Thoen, J., Bondhus, S., Haugen, M., Reseland, J. E., Dioseland, O., … & Kjeldsen-Kragh, J. (2000). Reduction in serum leptin and IGF-1 but preserved T-lymphocyte numbers and activation after a ketogenic diet in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clinical and experimental rheumatology18(2), 209-214.

Greco, T., Glenn, T. C., Hovda, D. A., & Prins, M. L. (2015). Ketogenic diet decreases oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial respiratory complex activity. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 0271678X15610584.

Hays, J. H., DiSabatino, A., Gorman, R. T., Vincent, S., & Stillabower, M. E. (2003, November). Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 78, No. 11, pp. 1331-1336). Elsevier.

Hu, Z. G., Wang, H. D., Qiao, L., Yan, W., Tan, Q. F., & Yin, H. X. (2009). The protective effect of the ketogenic diet on traumatic brain injury-induced cell death in juvenile rats. Brain Injury23(5), 459-465.

Kashiwaya, Y., Pawlosky, R., Markis, W., King, M. T., Bergman, C., Srivastava, S., … & Veech, R. L. (2010). A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar rat. Journal of Biological Chemistry285(34), 25950-25956.

Kelleher, P. C., Phinney, S. D., Sims, E. A., Bogardus, C., Horton, E. S., Bistrian, B. R., … & Lockwood, D. H. (1983). Effects of carbohydrate-containing and carbohydrate-restricted hypocaloric and eucaloric diets on serum concentrations of retinol-binding protein, thyroxine-binding prealbumin and transferrin. Metabolism32(1), 95-101.

Kemper, M. F., Srivastava, S., King, M. T., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L., & Pawlosky, R. J. (2015). An Ester of β-Hydroxybutyrate Regulates Cholesterol Biosynthesis in Rats and a Cholesterol Biomarker in Humans. Lipids50(12), 1185-1193.

Kesl, S., Poff, A., Ward, N., Fiorelli, T., Ari, C., Van Putten, A., … & D’Agostino, D. (2015). Effect of Sustaining Dietary Ketosis on the Hippocampal and Serum Metabolome of Sprague-Dawley Rats. The FASEB Journal29(1 Supplement), 745-4.

Kesl, S. L., Poff, A. M., Ward, N. P., Fiorelli, T. N., Ari, C., Van Putten, A. J., … & D’Agostino, D. P. (2016). Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague–Dawley rats. Nutrition & metabolism13(1), 1.

Krikorian, R., Shidler, M. D., Dangelo, K., Couch, S. C., Benoit, S. C., & Clegg, D. J. (2012). Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of aging33(2), 425-e19.

Lambert, E. V., Speechly, D. P., Dennis, S. C., & Noakes, T. D. (1994). Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology69(4), 287-293.

Leino, R. L., Gerhart, D. Z., Duelli, R., Enerson, B. E., & Drewes, L. R. (2001). Diet-induced ketosis increases monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) levels in rat brain. Neurochemistry international38(6), 519-527.

Liepa, G. U., Sengupta, A., & Karsies, D. (2008). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Other Androgen Excess–Related Conditions: Can Changes in Dietary Intake Make a Difference?. Nutrition in Clinical Practice23(1), 63-71.

Maalouf, M., Rho, J. M., & Mattson, M. P. (2009). The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies. Brain research reviews59(2), 293-315.

Malhotra, A. (2013). Saturated fat is not the major issue. British Medical Journal.

Manninen, A. H. (2006). Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass. Nutrition & metabolism3(1), 1.

Mavropoulos, J. C., Yancy, W. S., Hepburn, J., & Westman, E. C. (2005). The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Nutrition & metabolism2(1), 1.

Mutungi, G., Ratliff, J., Puglisi, M., Torres-Gonzalez, M., Vaishnav, U., Leite, J. O., … & Fernandez, M. L. (2008). Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. The Journal of nutrition138(2), 272-276.

Nakazawa, M., Kodama, S., & Matsuo, T. (1983). Effects of ketogenic diet on electroconvulsive threshold and brain contents of adenosine nucleotides. Brain and Development5(4), 375-380.

Newport, M. T., VanItallie, T. B., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., & Veech, R. L. (2015). A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia11(1), 99-103.

Nielsen, J. V., & Joensson, E. (2006). Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up. Nutrition & metabolism3(1), 1.

Nielsen, J. V., & Joensson, E. A. (2008). Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up. Nutrition & metabolism5(1), 1.

Otto, C., Kaemmerer, U., Illert, B., Muehling, B., Pfetzer, N., Wittig, R., … & Coy, J. F. (2008). Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides. BMC cancer8(1), 1.

Paganoni, S., & Wills, A. M. (2013). High-fat and ketogenic diets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of child neurology, 0883073813488669.

Paoli, A., Grimaldi, K., Toniolo, L., Canato, M., Bianco, A., & Fratter, A. (2012). Nutrition and acne: therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets. Skin pharmacology and physiology25(3), 111-117.

Paoli, A., Rubini, A., Volek, J. S., & Grimaldi, K. A. (2013). Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. European journal of clinical nutrition67(8), 789-796.

Phinney, S. D., Bistrian, B. R., Kosinski, E., Chan, D. P., Hoffer, L. J., Rolla, A., … & Blackburn, G. L. (1983). Normal cardiac rhythm during hypocaloric diets of varying carbohydrate content. Archives of internal medicine143(12), 2258-2261.

Poff, A. M., Ari, C., Goldhagen, C., Seyfried, T., & D’Agostino, D. (2013). The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy work synergistically to slow tumor growth and increase survival time in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. The FASEB Journal27(1 Supplement), 863-2.

Poff, A. M., Ari, C., Goldhagen, C., Seyfried, T., & D’Agostino, D. (2013). The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy work synergistically to slow tumor growth and increase survival time in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. The FASEB Journal27(1 Supplement), 863-2.

Poff, A. M., Ari, C., Arnold, P., Seyfried, T. N., & D’Agostino, D. P. (2014). Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer. International journal of cancer135(7), 1711-1720.

Poff, A. M., Ari, C., Seyfried, T. N., & D’Agostino, D. P. (2013). The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. PloS one8(6), e65522.

Poff, A. M., Ward, N., Seyfried, T. N., Arnold, P., & D’Agostino, D. P. (2015). Non-toxic metabolic management of metastatic cancer in VM mice: novel combination of ketogenic diet, ketone supplementation, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. PloS one10(6), e0127407.

Poff, A., Ward, N., Seyfried, T., & D’Agostino, D. (2015). Ketosis and hyperbaric oxygen elicit potent anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Research75(15 Supplement), 1159-1159.

Prins, M. L. (2008). Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism28(1), 1-16.

Ratliff, J. C., Mutungi, G., Puglisi, M. J., Volek, J. S., & Fernandez, M. L. (2008). Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men. Nutrition & metabolism5(1), 1.

Ratliff, J., Mutungi, G., Puglisi, M. J., Volek, J. S., & Fernandez, M. L. (2009). Carbohydrate restriction (with or without additional dietary cholesterol provided by eggs) reduces insulin resistance and plasma leptin without modifying appetite hormones in adult men. Nutrition research29(4), 262-268.

Robertson, M. D., Bickerton, A. S., Dennis, A. L., Vidal, H., & Frayn, K. N. (2005). Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism. The American journal of clinical nutrition82(3), 559-567.

Saslow, L. R., Kim, S., Daubenmier, J. J., Moskowitz, J. T., Phinney, S. D., Goldman, V., … & Hecht, F. M. (2014). A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. PloS one9(4), e91027.

Sato, S., Jung, H., Nakagawa, T., Pawlosky, R., Takeshima, T., Lee, W. R., … & MacMillan, J. B. (2016). Metabolite Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Carbohydrate-response Element-binding Protein (ChREBP) ROLE OF AMP AS AN ALLOSTERIC INHIBITOR. Journal of Biological Chemistry291(20), 10515-10527.

Seyfried, T. N., Flores, R. E., Poff, A. M., & D’Agostino, D. P. (2014). Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics. Carcinogenesis35(3), 515-527.

Seyfried, T. N., Flores, R., Poff, A. M., D’Agostino, D. P., & Mukherjee, P. (2015). Metabolic therapy: a new paradigm for managing malignant brain cancer. Cancer letters356(2), 289-300.

Seyfried, T. N., Marsh, J., Shelton, L. M., Huysentruyt, L. C., & Mukherjee, P. (2012). Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer?. Epilepsy research100(3), 310-326.

Sharman, M. J., Kraemer, W. J., Love, D. M., Avery, N. G., Gómez, A. L., Scheett, T. P., & Volek, J. S. (2002). A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men. The Journal of nutrition132(7), 1879-1885.

Shivva, V., Cox, P. J., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L., Tucker, I. G., & Duffull, S. B. (2016). The Population Pharmacokinetics of d-β-hydroxybutyrate Following Administration of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyl (R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate. The AAPS journal18(3), 678-688.

Siri-Tarino, P. W., Sun, Q., Hu, F. B., & Krauss, R. M. (2010). Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. The American journal of clinical nutrition, ajcn-27725.

Srivastava, S., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Baxa, U., Tam, J., Niu, G., … & Veech, R. L. (2012). Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. The FASEB Journal26(6), 2351-2362.

Steriade, C., Andrade, D. M., Faghfoury, H., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Tai, P. (2014). Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) may respond to adjunctive ketogenic diet. Pediatric neurology50(5), 498-502.

Tendler, D., Lin, S., Yancy Jr, W. S., Mavropoulos, J., Sylvestre, P., Rockey, D. C., & Westman, E. C. (2007). The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study. Digestive diseases and sciences52(2), 589-593.

Tisdale, M. J., Brennan, R. A., & Fearon, K. C. (1987). Reduction of weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model by a high fat diet. British journal of cancer56(1), 39.

Veech, R. L. (2004). The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and essential fatty acids70(3), 309-319.

Veech, R. L. (2013). Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1302(1), 42-48.

Veech, R. L. (2014). Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription. Journal of lipid research55(10), 2004-2006.

Volek, J. S., Ballard, K. D., Silvestre, R., Judelson, D. A., Quann, E. E., Forsythe, C. E., … & Kraemer, W. J. (2009). Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation. Metabolism58(12), 1769-1777.

Volek, J. S., & Feinman, R. D. (2005). Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction. Nutrition & metabolism2(1), 1.

Volek, J. S., Fernandez, M. L., Feinman, R. D., & Phinney, S. D. (2008). Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Progress in lipid research47(5), 307-318.

Volek, J. S., & Phinney, S. D. (2013). A new look at carbohydrate-restricted diets: Separating fact from fiction. Nutrition Today48(2), E1-E7.

Volek, J. S., Phinney, S. D., Forsythe, C. E., Quann, E. E., Wood, R. J., Puglisi, M. J., … & Feinman, R. D. (2009). Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids44(4), 297-309.

Volek, J. S., Sharman, M. J., Love, D. M., Avery, N. G., Scheett, T. P., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism51(7), 864-870.

Volek, J. S., Sharman, M. J., Gomez, A. L., Scheett, T. P., & Kraemer, W. J. (2003). An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial lipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. The Journal of nutrition133(9), 2756-2761.

Volek, J. S., Sharman, M. J., Gómez, A. L., DiPasquale, C., Roti, M., Pumerantz, A., & Kraemer, W. J. (2004). Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition23(2), 177-184.

Volek, J. S., Sharman, M. J., Gómez, A. L., Judelson, D. A., Rubin, M. R., Watson, G., … & Kraemer, W. J. (2004). Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutrition & metabolism1(1), 1.

Volek, J. S., Quann, E. E., & Forsythe, C. E. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets promote a more favorable body composition than low-fat diets. Strength & Conditioning Journal32(1), 42-47.

Vorgerd, M., & Zange, J. (2007). Treatment of glycogenosys type V (McArdle disease) with creatine and ketogenic diet with clinical scores and with 31P-MRS on working leg muscle. Acta Myologica26(1), 61.

Westman, E. C. (1999). A review of very low carbohydrate diets for weight loss. JCOM-WAYNE PA-6, 36-40.

Westman, E. C., Feinman, R. D., Mavropoulos, J. C., Vernon, M. C., Volek, J. S., Wortman, J. A., … & Phinney, S. D. (2007). Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. The American journal of clinical nutrition86(2), 276-284.

Westman, E. C., Mavropoulos, J., Yancy Jr, W. S., & Volek, J. S. (2003). A review of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets. Current atherosclerosis reports5(6), 476-483.

Westman, E. C., Yancy, W. S., Edman, J. S., Tomlin, K. F., & Perkins, C. E. (2002). Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. The American journal of medicine113(1), 30-36.

Westman, E. C., Yancy, W. S., Olsen, M. K., Dudley, T., & Guyton, J. R. (2006). Effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program compared to a low-fat diet on fasting lipoprotein subclasses. International journal of cardiology110(2), 212-216.

Wood, R. J., Fernandez, M. L., Sharman, M. J., Silvestre, R., Greene, C. M., Zern, T. L., … & Volek, J. S. (2007). Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet with and without supplemental soluble fiber on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other clinical markers of cardiovascular risk. Metabolism56(1), 58-67.

Wood, R. J., Volek, J. S., Liu, Y., Shachter, N. S., Contois, J. H., & Fernandez, M. L. (2006). Carbohydrate restriction alters lipoprotein metabolism by modifying VLDL, LDL, and HDL subfraction distribution and size in overweight men. The Journal of nutrition136(2), 384-389.

Yancy, W. S., Olsen, M. K., Guyton, J. R., Bakst, R. P., & Westman, E. C. (2004). A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of internal medicine140(10), 769-777.

Youm, Y. H., Nguyen, K. Y., Grant, R. W., Goldberg, E. L., Bodogai, M., Kim, D., … & Kang, S. (2015). The ketone metabolite [beta]-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease. Nature medicine21(3), 263-269.

References Supporting Low-Carb, High Fat Diets for Sports Performance

Cox, P. J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., … & King, M. T. (2016). Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metabolism.

Goedecke, J. H., Christie, C., Wilson, G., Dennis, S. C., Noakes, T. D., Hopkins, W. G., & Lambert, E. V. (1999). Metabolic adaptations to a high-fat diet in endurance cyclists. Metabolism48(12), 1509-1517.


Holland, A. M., Kephart, W. C., Mumford, P. W., Mobley, C. B., Lowery, R. P., Shake, J. J., … & Huggins, K. W. (2016). Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ajpregu-00156.

Jabekk, P. T., Moe, I. A., Meen, H. D., Tomten, S. E., & Høstmark, A. T. (2010). Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat. Nutrition & metabolism7(1), 1.

Joy, J. M., Vogel, R. M., Tribby, A. C., Preisendorf, J. C., Falcone, P. H., Mosman, M. M., … & Moon, J. R. A KETOGENIC DIET’S EFFECTS ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE IN TWO PROFESSIONAL MIXED-MARTIAL-ARTS ATHLETES: CASE REPORTS. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2016 supplement.

Noakes, T., Volek, J. S., & Phinney, S. D. (2014). Low-carbohydrate diets for athletes: what evidence?. British journal of sports medicine48(14), 1077-1078.

Paoli, A., Grimaldi, K., D’Agostino, D., Cenci, L., Moro, T., Bianco, A., & Palma, A. (2012). Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1), 1.

Phinney, S. D., Bistrian, B. R., Evans, W. J., Gervino, E., & Blackburn, G. L. (1983). The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism32(8), 769-776.

Phinney, S. D., Horton, E. S., Sims, E. A., Hanson, J. S., Danforth Jr, E., & Lagrange, B. M. (1980). Capacity for moderate exercise in obese subjects after adaptation to a hypocaloric, ketogenic diet. Journal of Clinical Investigation66(5), 1152.

Phinney, S. D., Bistrian, B. R., Wolfe, R. R., & Blackburn, G. L. (1983). The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptation. Metabolism32(8), 757-768.

Roberts, M. D., Holland, A. M., Kephart, W. C., Mobley, C. B., Mumford, P. W., Lowery, R. P., … & Patel, R. K. (2016). A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents. Journal of Applied Physiology120(10), 1173-1185.

Volek, J. S., Freidenreich, D. J., Saenz, C., Kunces, L. J., Creighton, B. C., Bartley, J. M., … & Lee, E. C. (2016). Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners. Metabolism65(3), 100-110.

Volek, J. S., Noakes, T., & Phinney, S. D. (2015). Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise. European journal of sport science15(1), 13-20.

Webster, C. C., Noakes, T. D., Chacko, S. K., Swart, J., Kohn, T. A., & Smith, J. A. (2016). Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long‐term low carbohydrate high fat diet. The Journal of physiology.


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